Type if – clause and wish

There are three types of the if-clauses.

type condition
I condition possible to fulfill
II condition in theory possible to fulfill
III condition not possible to fulfill (too late)

Form

type if clause main clause
I Simple Present will-future (or Modal + infinitive)
II Simple Past would + infinitive *
III Past Perfect would + have + past participle *

Examples (if-clause at the beginning)

type if clause main clause
I If I study, I will pass the exam.
II If I studied, I would pass the exam.
III If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.

Examples (if-clause at the end)

type main clause if-clause
I I will pass the exam if I study.
II I would pass the exam if I studied.
III I would have passed the exam if I had studied.

Examples (affirmative and negative sentences)

type Examples
long forms short/contracted forms
I + If I study, I will pass the exam. If I study, I’ll pass the exam.
If I study, I will not fail the exam.
If I do not study, I will fail the exam.
If I study, I won’t fail the exam.
If I don’t study, I’ll fail the exam.
II + If I studied, I would pass the exam. If I studied, I’d pass the exam.
If I studied, I would not fail the exam.
If I did not study, I would fail the exam.
If I studied, I wouldn’t fail the exam.
If I didn’t study, I’d fail the exam.
III + If I had studied, I would have passed the exam. If I’d studied, I’d have passed the exam.
If I had studied, I would not have failedthe exam.
If I had not studied, I would have failedthe exam.
If I’d studied, I wouldn’t have failed the exam.
If I hadn’t studied, I’d have failed the exam.

* We can substitute could or might for would (should, may or must are sometimes possible, too).

Type Wish :

(1) Future wish :

  1. I wish my girlfriend would visit me this afternoon.
  2. They wish that you could come to the party tonight.
  3. Lisa wishes he were coming with Bobby.

(2) Present wish :

  1. I wish I were rich.
  2. I wish I had enough time to finish my work.
  3. Mickey wishes that Ririn were old enough to be his girl friend.

(3) Past Wish :

  1. I wish I had washed my pants yesterday.
  2. Donny wishes that he had answered the questions well.
  3. Bambang wishes that his team could have beaten the Malaysia team.
  4. I wish you had been here last night.

source : http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/if.htm

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